In this tutorial, we are going to discuss the Python callable() method along with its uses and working.
Basically, an object or instance is termed callable when it has a defined
__call__() function. In that case, we can refer to a.__call__(arg1, arg2, …) in a simpler way, a(arg1,arg2, …). Hence, it becomes callable.
The Python callable() Method
callable() method in Python makes it easier for the users to identify callable as well as non-callable objects and functions. It is a single argument function, that returns true if the passed object is callable and false if it is not.
The syntax for the method is given below,
obj is the instance or object that the user wants to check is callable or not.
Working of the Python callable() Method
Let us look at some examples to have a clear understanding of the
callable() method in Python.
When Python callable() returns True
As stated earlier, the method returns true when the passed object is callable. Let us see for what conditions it does so.
#true def demo(): print("demo() called!") #object created demo_obj = demo class demo_class: def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs): #__call__() is defined here print("__call__() defined!") demo_class_obj = demo_class() print("demo_obj is callable? ",callable(demo_obj)) print("demo_class is callable? ",callable(demo_class)) #classes are always callable print("demo_class_obj is callable? ",callable(demo_class_obj)) demo_obj() #calling demo()'s object demo_class_obj() #calling the demo_class object
demo_obj is callable? True demo_class is callable? True demo_class_obj is callable? True demo() called! __call__() defined!
- We define
demo()function, create its new instance demo_obj,
- Then define a new class demo_class with
- And create an object of the class demo_class named demo_class_obj,
- Finally, check whether the created objects and the class are callable or not. Which we can see from the output, are callable.
- And at last, we call both the function
demo_class_obj(). In the case of the demo class’s object call, the __call__() method is executed as we can see from the output.
Note: All classes are callable, so for any class, callable() method returns true. This is evident from the above example, where we try checking the
callable() output for demo_class.
When Python callable() returns False
callable() returns false when the passed object is not callable. Let us see for what conditions it does that.
n = 10 class demo_class: def print_demo(self): print("demo") demo_class_obj = demo_class() print("n is callable? ",callable(n)) print("demo_class_obj is callable? ",callable(demo_class_obj))
n is callable? False demo_class_obj is callable? False
In the code above,
- We initialize an integer n as n = 10,
- And then define a class demo_class with member function
- After that, we create an object of the demo_class named demo_class_obj,
- And finally, check whether n and demo_class_obj are callable or not, Which from the output above, we can see that are not callable.
n is an integer and clearly cannot be called. Whereas in the case of the demo_class_obj, the class(demo_class) doesn’t have a well defined
__call__() method. Hence is not callable.
So, in this tutorial, we learned about the Python callable() method, and its working. The method is widely used for error proofing a program.
Checking if an object or function is callable or not before actually calling it helps avoid TypeError.
I hope you have a clear understanding of the topic. For any questions feel free to comment below.