The Python `pow()`

function is one of the most commonly used **built-in** function in Python programming. It is extensively used to calculate the value of **a** to the power **n** or more specifically **a ^{n}**. It is a very useful function when dealing with some complex mathematical calculations or sometimes for other operations. So, let us dig a bit deeper into the

`pow()`

function in **Python**.

## Using the Python pow() function

The `pow()`

function can be passed with a total of **three** arguments. The syntax for `pow()`

is given below,

`pow( a , n , b )`

Where,

**a**is the number whose power we are calculating or the**base number**,**n**is how much to the power a is to be raised or the**exponential part**,**b**is the number with which the**modulus**of an is going to be calculated.

Note: **b** is an optional argument.

## Examples

Look at the code below, we here try to calculate the value of, let us say, **2 ^{5}**.

```
x=pow(2,5) #2^5
y=pow(4,-2) #1/(4^2)
print(x,y)
```

**Output:**

Lets again try passing the optional **modulus** argument now,

```
x=pow(2,5,5) #(2^5) % 5 = 32 % 5
print(x)
```

**Output:**

```
2
```

So accordingly we get the output as **2**. Since `pow(2,5,5)`

actually returns the value for **(2^5) % 5** Or, **32 % 5 = 2**.

**Note:** While using the modulo argument we must make sure that the 2nd argument(exponent part) is a **positive integer. **Or else an **error** is thrown as shown below,

```
y=pow(4,-2,6)
print(y)
```

**Output:**

```
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "C:/Users/sneha/Desktop/test.py", line 2, in <module>
y=pow(4,-2,6)
ValueError: pow() 2nd argument cannot be negative when 3rd argument specified
```

## math.pow() vs. Built-in pow() in Python

Apart from the fact that the `math.pow()`

doesn’t come with the integrated modulus operation, both the built-in `pow()`

and the pre-defined `math.pow()`

have some big differences.

The `pow()`

function is comparatively **faster** for large set of values. On the other hand for using **math.pow()** the user has to first import **mat**h module.

Even **math.pow()** method throws an error while calculating the results for some complex numbers. Which the **pow()** method does not.