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Python Directory Operations

Directory is basically a structure that contains all the corresponding documents, files, and folders.

Python’s os module contains multiple functions for directory management.


Python directories functions

os.access(path, mode)
It uses the uid to check for the path’s access.
os.chdir(path)
It changes the CWD to the path specified by the user.
os.chflags(path, flags)
It is used to set the flags to the numeric flags.
os.chmod(path, mode)
It is used to change the path’s mode to the numeric mode.
os.chown(path, uid, gid)
It changes the group id and owner of path to the numeric uid and gid.
os.chroot(path)
It is used to change the root directory of the currently executing process to the path specified by the user.
os.fchdir(fd)
It is used to change the CWD to the directory represented in the file descriptor fd
os.getcwd()
It returns the current working directory (CWD).
os.getcwdu()
It returns Unicode object as output, represented by the CWD.
os.lchmod(path, mode)
It is used to change the path’s mode to the numeric mode.
os.listdir(path)
Returns a list containing the names of the entries in the directory given by path.
os.lstat(path)
os.makedirs(path[, mode])
It is used to create the directories in a recursive manner.
os.mkdir( )
It is used to creates a new directory with a named path.
os.mkfifo(path[, mode])
os.readlink(path)
os.removedirs(path)
It is used to remove the corresponding directories recursively.
os.rename(src, dst)
It is used to rename the src directory to the dst.
os.renames(old, new)
It is used to rename the old directories with a new one in a recursive manner.
os.rmdir(path)
It is used to remove the directory specified by the user.
os.stat(path)

1. Creating of a New Directory

Python’s os module provides mkdir() function to create a new directory.

Syntax:

os.mkdir('name')
import os
os.mkdir('C:/python1') #create a direcotry abc in C:

Output:

Create Directory
Create Directory

2. Get the Current Working Directory

The getcwd() function is used to get the location of the CWD.

import os
os.getcwd() 

Output:

wdir='C:/Users/HP/PycharmProjects/Hello'

3. Rename a Directory

The rename() function is used to rename the CWD.

Syntax:

os.rename(old,new)

4. Fetch the List of Files/Directories in a Directory

The listdir() function is used to get the list of all the directories and files present in the current directory.

import os
os.listdir('C:\\Users\\HP')

Output:

['.android', '.AndroidStudio3.5', '.crashlytics', '.eclipse', '.emulator_console_auth_token', '.gradle', '.idlerc', '.m2', '.nbi', '.netbeans-derby', '.p2', '.PyCharm2019.3', '.RapidMiner', '.tooling', '.vscode', '3D Objects', 'Anaconda3', 'Anaconda3_1', 'AndroidStudioProjects', 'AppData', 'Application Data', 'Contacts', 'Cookies', 'Desktop', 'Documents', 'Downloads', 'eclipse', 'eclipse-workspace', 'Favorites', 'get-pip.py', 'HP', 'IntelGraphicsProfiles', 'Links', 'Local Settings', 'MicrosoftEdgeBackups']

5. Remove a Directory in Python

The rmdir() function is used to delete a directory, which is already empty. If the directory is not empty, it won’t be deleted.

import os
os.rmdir('C:\\Users\\HP\\Pictures\\Screenshots\\python')

6. Check if a Python directory exists

The os.path.exists(path) function is used to check whether a particular directory exists or not.

import os
os.path.exists('C:\\Users\\HP\\Pictures\\Screenshots')

Output:

True

Conclusion

Python os module provides multiple functions to work with directories. We learned how to create, rename, and delete directories in a Python program.


References